Pressure, Force, Hardness
The physical quantity pressure was of vital importance for the changes in society and technology.
The availability of adequate pressure of water vapour for all kinds of machines initiated the industrial revolution. Consequently, it was necessary to measure the pressure within a wide measuring range and with ever increasing accuracy. Today, pressure measurement plays an important role in fields such as safety engineering, power plant engineering, gas chemistry and petrochemistry, hydro- and aerodynamics, aerospace, process control and also for weather forecasts.
The growing complexity of materials demands an exact analysis of material properties to find possible fields of application for miscellaneous materials in research, industry and trade.
Material testing for product safety and quality assurance requires precise measurements of deformation and exerting forces as well as of the hardness of materials.